PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN 1861-1865
Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky. On February 12, 1809, he descended from Samuel and Nancy Lincoln, who arrived in Hingham Massachusetts, from Norfolk, England. In the 17th century, his grandfather, Abraham Lincoln was killed while moving from Virginia to Kentucky by an Indian raid in 1786, Mordecai the son of Abraham Lincoln Sr. prevented Samuel from being killed due to his marksmanship with the rifle, Mordecai as the eldest son, by law inherited the estate;.
Thomas was a poor but respected citizen of rural Kentucky, the family belonged to a Separate Baptists church which had high moral standards and opposed dancing, alcohol and slavery, Lincoln himself never joined a church, the Lincoln family lost their lands due to a faulty title in 1816 and made a new start in Perry County Indiana. Lincoln noted later the move was partly due to slavery but primarily due to land title difficulties, Lincoln’s fraternal mother died at age 34 by milk sickness, soon after his father remarried Sarah Bush Johnston, which Lincoln became very close and called "Mother".
Lincoln became very distant from his father over time, he regretted his father’s lack of education he also did not like the labor associated with frontier life, and he still took responsibility for all his chores expected of him as a member of the household, he also agreed with the customary obligation of a son to give all earnings from work done outside the home until the age of 21, there after occasionally loaning his father money, in 1830, for fear of the milk sickness outbreak, the family relocated to public land in Macon County, Illinois.
Then in 1831 homestead in Coles County, Illinois. At the age of 22 years of age, Lincoln became Independent, in the Spring of 1831 he was hired by New Salem Businessman, and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers, arriving in New Orleans and witnessing slavery first hand, he walked back home, his education consisted of 18 months of classes with several itinerant teachers, but mostly self educated and an avid reader.
Young Lincoln was known as a handyman with an axe and a talented local wrestler which instilled him with self confidence, he was not a hard worker, at a young age family and friends considered him to be lazy, Lincoln avoided hunting and fishing out of compassion for living animals, Lincoln had Romantic Interest with three women from 1835 to 1842, then on November 4, 1842 he married a reunited love, by the name; Mary Todd, who was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington, Kentucky.
The Lincoln’s had four male budding offspring with the birth of Robert Todd Lincoln in 1843, Edward Baker Lincoln in 1846, and William “Willie” Wallace Lincoln in 1850, and Thomas “Tad” Lincoln in 1853, Robert Todd Lincoln was the only son to live beyond 18 years of age, both parents had profound effects on their lives due to their son’s deaths, Abraham Lincoln suffered from “melancholy” known as clinical depression, Mary struggled with stresses of losing her husband and sons, in 1875 Robert Lincoln had to commit her to a mental health asylum.
Lincoln was a country Lawyer and outspoken opponent to the expansion of slavery in the United States, he served as a Illinois state legislator and as a one term member of the House of Representatives, Lincoln won the Republican nomination and elected President in 1860, in an effort to unite the union between the north and the south and abolish slavery resulted in the civil war and the secession of eleven Confederate States of America.
He exercised unprecedented war powers of arrest and detention, without trial, of thousands of suspected secessionists, in 1863 he issued his Emancipation Proclamation doctrine and promoted passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution to abolish slavery, six days after the Confederate forces surrendered, Lincoln was assassinated.
During the war efforts, Lincoln closely supervised the selection of top generals, Including Ulysses S. Grant; he utilized leaders of both parties into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate, Lincoln attempted numerous times to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, and replaced the top generals each time they failed, until finally Grant succeeded in 1865, Lincoln came under attack by both parties, radical republicans wanted harsher treatment of the south, democrats desired more compromise.
Lincoln fought back with patronage, putting his opponents against each other and utilizing his ability to connect with the American people in public speaking, hence the Gettysburg Address of 1863, became one of the most quoted speeches in history, it was the dedication to principles of nationalism, liberty, equal rights and democracy that made this an iconic speech, Lincoln has constantly been viewed as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.
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